This chapter explores physical gesture within a complex of cross-modal actions associated with musical performance and transmission. The inter-references of the research acknowledge the possibility of shared elements of musical-gestural co-expression between cultures, and also point to the broader applicability of music and gesture research to both cognitive science and musicology. The chapter investigates how imagery and gesture are implicated in the process of musical meaning construction, grounded in the teaching of three female vocalists from Maharashtra and West Bengal. Many performers testify to the important role visual imagery plays in their raga presentation, and listeners attest to a similar importance in their listening experiences. Physical gesture is thus implicated in a complex set of cross-modal interactions, and can provide information about different aspects of performance including sound production, communication between participants and issues of signification. Different musicians and traditions might value the aesthetic and communicative role of hand movement in performance differently.