Musicians playing in a conducted ensemble can utilize both auditory and visual cues in order to synchronize their performances with each other. Auditory cues are provided solely by the other musicians, while visual cues are primarily provided by the conductor. The musicians, too, may provide some visual synchronization cues to each other, even in a conducted ensemble, but it is the conductor who is the sole visual-only cue-provider. Musicians’ ability to pick up and make use of these auditory and visual synchronization cues is, therefore, a necessary skill for a polished ensemble performance (Keller 2001).