This chapter explores that Northern Ireland's environmental governance has been widely criticised. It concentrates on the functions of the Environmental Policy Division and of the Northern Ireland Environment Agency (NIEA) in developing, implementing and enforcing environmental law within Northern Ireland. The chapter examines the power that the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) has to impose financial penalties and the influence this has had upon policy makers and regulators. It discusses the environmental governance within Northern Ireland. The chapter concentrates in particular on developments in the period since the restoration of devolved government after 1998. It highlights the fact that whilst there has been a major effort to implement directives. The chapter also examines the concerted calls that have been made for the introduction of an environmental regulator that is independent from, rather than integrated within, government in Northern Ireland. It deals with matters of environmental integration and the need for oversight in relation to environmental performance.