This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book addresses the role played in religion as a separate, yet fully-fledged, system of law, operating side by side with state law. It focuses more on the ways that religion influences the normative content of contemporary legal systems. The book also focuses on the recently strengthened concept of religious orthodoxy as the red line of his analysis to analyse the continuing struggles between different interpretations of Islam and competing constructions of national identities in contemporary Indonesia. Bogdan Mihai Radu and Cosmina Paul discuss the attitudes towards abortion in Romania and how these attitudes are shaped by the work of religious in the non-governmental organizations. The new post-communist framework of discussion on abortion continues, therefore, to be affected by religious discourses. This occurs partly as a result of the fact that religious organizations are increasingly involved in education and development services.