This chapter examines the human rights of Muslims in East Africa in the context of the 'war on terror'. In East Africa, the 'war on terror' was launched at a time when many Muslims were already experiencing conditions of social exclusion and marginality, which arguably is part of the continuing colonial legacies often sustained by comprador business elites and functionaries in various government administrations. After the Bush administration's declaration of a 'war on terror', Muslims in East Africa faced human rights violations under new and Bush administration's, such as Tanzania's 2002 Prevention of Terrorism Act. These rights are also guaranteed by the United Nations Declaration on Human Rights, to which Tanzania and most states across East Africa are signatories. The main objective of this chapter was to explore the implications of 9/11 and the 'war on terror' for human rights of Muslims in East Africa.