ABSTRACT

Olympic Games, World Cups, and World Fairs, as well as theater, music, and film festivals are major events that represent what has been called the “festivalization of urban politics” (Häußermann and Siebel 1993, Gold and Gold 2005). What characterizes these urban cultural events is a thematic focus of urban politics on spatially and temporally limited projects. Spectacular, future-oriented buildings and large-scale urban development programs in the host cities often accompany these internationally-oriented projects, such as expositions and major sporting events, which momentarily grace a certain location and then travel between cities around the globe. In this respect, such events or major projects are to be regarded, inter alia, as instruments of urban development policy.