This conclusion presents some closing thoughts on key concepts discussed in the preceding chapters of this book. The book analyses the complex historical and political trajectories of the use of DNA evidence for family reunification in Germany, Austria and Finland, and has also looked at ethical concerns related to this practice. It provides a detailed comparison of the rationalities and procedures involved in carrying out DNA testing for family reunification, and highlights important similarities as well as some remarkable differences between the three countries. Although the EU introduced a common European Regulation for family reunification in 2003, the member states and in particular the three countries under investigation understand and regulate what they subsume under this label in very different ways. The plural legal provisions and the diversity of formal regulations governing the field of family reunification in the three countries also result in discrepancies in the administrative procedures and incompatible practical arrangements for implementing DNA testing.