This chapter conveys postmodernism both as a historical moment and as a force within modernism to expand its range of expression, examining four areas. The first one is postminimalism, particularly as represented by John Adams’s Harmonielehre, which is symbolic, in style and date, of the age of postmodernism. The second topic is spectralist music, for which Kaija Saariaho’s Lichtbogen serves as an example. The third focus is historical reference, as explored through the muted pluralism and intertextuality of Thomas Adès’s Asyla. The fourth section considers how musicology has expanded its understanding of social meaning in music.