By examining the trajectories and careers of a number of modernist composers in exile, as well as the relationships and networks they established among themselves and with others, this chapter aims to challenge the longstanding notions of nationalism, internationalism and cosmopolitanism, as well as those narratives of transplantation and acculturation, which tend to dominate our understanding of exile. The chapter also discusses how exile and diaspora are more fundamental to modernism than has been acknowledged previously, in that they can be seen to contribute to the experience of alienation often associated with modernism. All this might therefore suggest reconceiving modernism as a multipolar network.