This chapter explains the Sultan's conquest of the city which proved to be the first in an astonishing and relentless sequence of victories over Christian powers, which ended only with his death in 1481. It explores that Constantinople's fall was of great significance to all three of the faith communities: the Orthodox and Catholic Churches, and Islam. The conquest of 'New Rome' was bound to affect the thinking of the victors. Nikolay Antov shows in his essay that the event played a catalytic role in making the Ottomans reflect on their past and ponder their destiny. Hitherto the dynasty's apologists had constructed an image which focused on their expanding the Dar al-Islam through frontier clashes and conquests. The crusading response was conditioned first and foremost by the attitudes of Christendom's rulers. Perhaps the most striking way in which the situation evolved in the 1400s was that Western Europe's most powerful monarchies virtually withdrew from active interest.