This summary chapter examines and compares structures of media self-regulation and media accountability in all parts of Europe – and beyond. Emphasizing the relevance of responsible media in democratic countries granting press freedom, the summary analyses the development of established instruments of media self-regulation – such as press councils and ethics codes – as well as more recent online instruments – e.g. media blogs, online ombudsmen and participatory processes of media accountability. In order to do so, the authors summarize the key results of the first comparative analysis of media self-regulation and accountability structures in all EU member states (plus selected neighbouring countries), provided by a team of mass communication and journalism scholars from 33 different research institutions. In addition to the qualitative data, the summary presents a pilot index to measure the state of media accountability across countries, and – similar to the Press Freedom Index by Reporters Without Borders – stimulate a wider media policy debate about self-regulation beyond academic circles.