Non-tariff measures (NTMs), especially in the form of standards which are either mandatory or voluntary, are attaining greater importance in international trade policy debates. One of the issues that is most debated and poses a challenge relates to whether these measures meet legitimate policy goals without unduly restricting or distorting trade. Regulatory measures such as technical barriers to trade (TBT) and sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures in goods and domestic regulation in services raise new and pressing challenges for international cooperation in the twenty-first century. They also pose acute transparency issues. More than many other measures, they reflect public policy goals (such as ensuring health, safety and well-being of consumers). Their trade effects may be incidental, but they can also be designed and applied in a manner that unnecessarily frustrates trade, which is becoming apparent from the rising trends of disputes. They are now affecting trade in goods and thus challenging the basic objective of free trade championed by the multilateral trading system.