The OECD projects that China will soon have the largest GDP in the world and that India will overtake the United States shortly after mid-century. On the assumption that these projections are accurate, this chapter explores their long-term implications for international trade and investment. The chapter goes on to consider the impact of China and India on the economies of sub-Saharan Africa. This is followed by a discussion of the changing balance of power in the world. This includes a discussion of the military balance. The chapter concludes with a brief summary.