This chapter takes stock of new developments in the world food landscape, including food supply and demand projections over the next decades based on the IMPACT Model. The chapter outlines current and emerging challenges to the global food system, namely demographic shifts and urbanization, climate change, continued conflict, and uncertainty in the global political landscape. Innovations in technologies, policies, and institutions, as well as reforms in global and local governance, are urgently needed to reshape the global food system to fill the food supply–demand gap and to end hunger and malnutrition sustainably. There is a need for more data and research to understand current opportunities, challenges, and enabling environments to inform effective policy design and implementation.

JEL classifications: C50, I15, O13, O18, Q11, Q16, Q18