This chapter provides an overview of evidence that automatic cognitions are influenced by persuasive efforts, and conversely, that automatic cognitions can enhance or impede the effectiveness of persuasive messages. Relevant dual-processing theories that can be applied to persuasion and communication in physical activity, exercise, and sport are described, research in the area is reviewed, and future research directions and applications are offered. The chapter focuses on two: the Associative-Propositional Evaluation model (APE) model and the Reflective-Impulsive Model (RIM). There is some research of automatic attention allocation in sport, but it is generally examined in terms of task execution. The APE model and the RIM both hold that associations between concepts are held in memory and are automatically activated when an attitude object is encountered; these are translated into explicit propositions that are considered "true" or not.