This chapter examines the evolution of China's foreign policies in recent decades and the associated consequences. It provides a survey of China's grand strategy from Deng Xiaoping to Hu Jintao, outlining the shift from a passive international posture to a proactive one. China's foreign policies are keenly informed by its grand strategy, which provides an overarching framework for states to pursue their international interests. The chapter analyzes key aspects of China's foreign policies under Xi Jinping. These include China's US policy, relations with other key major powers, and peripheral diplomacy. The chapter examines China's new roles in global governance. An aspect of China's rising roles in global governance concerns its UN peacekeeping efforts. While China has long contributed to UN peacekeeping missions in many parts of the world, until recently Chinese peacekeepers' roles were confined to noncombat missions. Under Xi Jinping, China has started to contribute combat troops to UN peacekeeping missions.