This chapter focuses on the treatment of cognitive symptoms associated with affective, psychotic and addictive disorders. The important affective disorders are mood and anxiety-related disorders. Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) mainly suffer from depressive episodes, whereas bipolar disorder (BPD) is characterised by depressive episodes and manic or hypomanic episodes. Anxiety-related disorders include generalised anxiety disorder (GAD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and phobias; they are characterised by the presence of clinically significant degrees of chronic anxiety in response to perceived threatening stimuli. Psychotic disorders are characterised by loss of contact with reality and include symptoms such as hallucinations, delusions, and disorganised speech and/or behaviour. The main class of psychiatric disorders is substance use disorders (SUDs), typified by compulsive and impulsive drug-seeking and taking behaviours. Patients with these psychiatric disorders have been found to demonstrate common symptomatologies, including impairments in cognitive functioning that make them good candidates for neuropsychological rehabilitation.