This chapter focuses on memory rehabilitation in children and adults. It describes the main approaches to the rehabilitation of new learning and prospective memory (PM) and review the research evidence for these, outlining practice recommendations and guidelines where available. The chapter deals with the important considerations, challenges and future directions in memory rehabilitation. Approaches to memory rehabilitation have generally been characterised as remedial or compensatory, though the latter have proved more effective. Remedial approaches are those that treat defective memory function through repetitive drills and memory training programmes that aim to restore damaged neural networks or establish new neural pathways. Instructional strategies are the most consistently investigated of the rehabilitative approaches that target new learning. These have focused on the use of different learning principles – with errorless learning (EL) and spaced retrieval (SR) among the most effective and commonly used – to enhance learning and retention of specific information.