ABSTRACT

Plato and Aristotle posit three fundamental drives-appetite, spirit, and reason-each seeking its own ends. Three paradigms of international relations-realism, liberalism, and Marxism-are rooted in appetite. Liberalism assumes that people and states seek wealth and use reason instrumentally to design strategies and institutions conducive to this goal. Realism differs from liberalism in arguing that concern for security must come first in an anarchical world. Realists root their paradigm in Hobbes’s observation-generally taken out of context-that people are motivated to find ways out of the state of nature, not only to preserve their lives but to protect their property and create an environment in which they can satisfy other appetites.1 Marxism is also anchored in appetite, although the young Marx was equally concerned with the spirit. He wrote about man’s alienation from his labor and how socialism would restore workers’ self-esteem by reordering their relationship to what they produced. Marx was a close reader of the Greeks and appreciated their richer understanding of human motives and related understanding that human happiness required more than the satisfaction of appetites.