This chapter explains to contribute to a more adequate understanding of issue of recognition and international relations. The aim of this chapter is to show how Taipei's shifting self-identification and its struggle for diplomatic recognition, based on its self-identification, have complicated Taipei's relationship with Beijing. It does so by looking at the historical evolution of Taiwan self-identification, its struggle for external recognition from both Mainland China and the broader international community, and the impact Taiwan struggle for diplomatic recognition has had on the cross-Taiwan Strait relations since 1940s. The chapter follows the journey of Taiwan's identity evolution since the 1940s to explore how recognition matters to identity formation. The United States did not support Taiwanese independence in organizations. This effectively broke US relations with Taiwan, and the Chinese Communist Party government. An independent Taiwan clashes with how Beijing sees Taiwan's identity in relation to the mainland. Taiwan return to conventional Chinese identity is called for to prevent cross-strait conflicts.