This chapter traces some of the historical developments that demonstrate a move towards professionalisation of criminal investigations, and articulate the art craft science debate in light of this perceived direction. The training academy in the Metropolitan Police was opened until 1902, and very little was taught to fledgling detectives prior to that time. Criminal investigation is the scientific collection, examination and preservation of evidence. Because it is a costly and resource-intensive procedure, a thorough investigation cannot be applied to all reported crimes. P. Stelfox identifies that different academic disciplines can and do inform investigative practice, ranging from law through to psychology, sociology, criminology and the classic sciences. The chapter identifies a potential discrepancy between the rhetoric and the reality of investigative development and practice. The decision to engage with Higher Education has also been criticised for lacking any evidence base.