The potential for miscarriages of justice occurring because of identification evidence is, therefore, still an issue of vital importance today. This chapter discusses the term 'lineup' will be used to refer to identification procedures generically, with more specific terms being employed when a distinction between methods is required. The sensitivity of policing personnel to a potential drop in the rate of positive identifications has been a component of eyewitness research, and subsequent recommendations, for some time. One possibility for communicating the dangers of misidentifications might be to adapt existing frameworks for evaluating harm, such as the multicriteria decision analysis procedure, which would allow the quantification of misidentifications in a broader context of the cost to individuals, families and to society in general. The accuracy of identification evidence can also be affected by information seen or heard by the witness between witnessing the crime and attending the lineup procedure.