This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book highlights challenges to the existing interpretation of gender equality (GE) in the context of intersectionality. It aims that the results of the comparative research can be used as a basis for further recommendations in the development of legal and policy frameworks in different countries and international organizations. The book includes states that are frequently considered having achieved a high degree of GE as well as a range of countries where the application of GE has been facing challenges: post-socialist Central and Eastern Europe, Africa, Latin America, and China. It focuses on Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), where post-socialist transition has created different obstacles to the acceptance of GE. The book aims to encourage more comparative scholarly work on gender equality that could be used as a basis for substantive legal and political changes.