This chapter argues that the causes of Estonia's mixed reaction to gender equality can be found in the country's history and socioeconomic development. Gender equality as a social and political problem emerged as a topical issue in Estonian political scene only after the country regained its independence in 1991. The chapter discusses the historical background of gender equality in Estonia, before proceeding to the current legal framework and its shortcomings in order to show how Estonia does and does not meet the Convention to Eliminate All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), definition of gender equality. It reviews certain key indicators of men's and women's positions in Estonian society: education, labor force participation, pay, parental leave and life expectancy. The Gender Equality Act (GEA) established a legal definition of gender equality, defined as equal rights, duties, opportunities and responsibilities of men and women.