This chapter explores the causes and dimensions of gender equality in Nigeria in view of its culturally and geopolitically diverse makeup. To do this it is important to provide a roadmap for applying gender equality terminology to the Nigerian social context and discuss regulatory frameworks put in place to empower women as well as highlight difficulties that confront state and non-state actors in implementing them. The chapter presents empirical data from interviews and focuses on group discussions with Nigerian women from all walks of life. It elaborates more specifically on the role of culture and religion later. The chapter examines major formal mechanisms that shape gender identity, roles and relations, including those explicitly established to promote gender equality. There are also numerous non-codified customary and religious norms that impact on the lives of men and women. The chapter discusses cultural and religious dimensions of gender inequality.