This chapter addresses the implementation of gender equality (GE), as defined by the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), in the People's Republic of China. It illuminates whether and how a universal understanding of GE as expressed in CEDAW can be fully adopted in a politically communist yet economically market-oriented Chinese context. The chapter provides historical overview of the women's movements and developments from the late Qing Dynasty to China's ratification of CEDAW. It describes how China has implemented its GE obligations in the new economic and political era from the late 1970s and up to the present. The chapter focuses on what has been done and achieved through political and legal processes. It provides a general picture of how gender equality works today, with a focus on women's education and labor force participation.