This chapter argues that in Australia, there is a tension in the translation of formal equality into substantive equality. The federal government legislates on matters of national interest, while a state's legislative powers extend over sectors like health, education, policing, infrastructure and so forth. The chapter discusses Australia's progress towards achieving gender equality. A brief recounting of Australia's engagement with CEDAW is followed by a critical review of a few significant legal and policy frameworks and formal institutional mechanisms established to advance gender equality. The chapter focuses on the unique challenges of intersectional inequality faced by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women. It considers the extent to which the CEDAW definition of gender equality exists in Australia through an examination of legal, policy and institutional frameworks using illustrations from domains of social life, specifically, labor force participation, protection from gendered violence and political participation.