Globalization has heightened the awareness of the need to keep up with competitors, and we speak of competition between nations, regions, cities, firms and individuals.

Limiting ourselves for a moment to the first three items, more and more emphasis has been on being “attractive”: to attract investments, to attract firms, to attract educated people and so on. Thus, a lot of attention has been devoted to explicitly analyze one’s institutional architecture in order to undertake those changes that are deemed necessary to reach the desired goal.