This chapter brings together all the key messages throughout the book and then considers what the implications may be for our future. The twin challenges of urbanisation and climate change are central to the discussions within the global framework of planetary boundaries. The positive contribution of urban and regional planning, particularly broader spatial planning to manage urban growth, is emphasised. However, it is clearly recognised that there are multiple forces and vested interests affecting urban and regional futures. There are also multiple dimensions – transport, housing, environment, employment and activities – often described as urban systems within a system. As a planner over a number of decades, the complexity of urban planning and management is appreciated. So is the need to take an integrated regional approach to urban and rural settlement. The chapter is on the one hand deeply concerned with the challenges ahead – urban mobility, cities and climate change, persistent poverty, environmental degradation and so on. On the other hand it is slightly optimistic with the groundswell of innovation and action particularly at the subnational and urban levels, the switch to renewable energy being a prime example, resulting in social, economic and environmental benefits. This chapter summarises the key messages from each chapter and then adds a final three points: one is the need to plan for both the short and longer-term visions, the second (and connected) is the need for systems of accountability and evaluation for improvement and the third is on interdisciplinary research and collaboration. It concludes on a message of urgency for action now that will require considerable action by everyone.