Chinese society is rapidly changing. This chapter focuses on gender attitudes and behaviours in China and how they are transforming in response to recent explosive economic development. Most previous studies show women tend to endorse the concept of equal gender roles (Bryant, 2003; Kulik, 2004). One large-scale study of students at 71 universities in the United States between 1970 and 1995 concluded that the consciousness of gender equality among female students has been increasing (Twenge, 1997). The results of some comparative analyses across different years show that both men and women have become less supportive of the separation of gender roles over time, moving towards greater recognition of the equality of men and women in family decision-making power (Thornton & YoungDeMarco, 2001; Karin & Padavic, 2000). Do the gender attitudes and role playing of the Chinese show a tendency towards more equality with rapid changes of the economy and society during the period of transformation? This chapter mainly uses the data of the first, second, and third waves of the Surveys on Women’s Social Status in China (SWSSC), conducted by the All-China Women’s Federation and the National Bureau of Statistics of China in 1990, 2000, and 2010, respectively, as well as other relevant studies, including international comparisons, to describe and analyse them.