As the leading theory of the changing family, the classic family modernization theory predicts that families are changing around the world, and converging in the process. The broadly relevant convergence theory, popular in history and sociology, proposes that all types of industrial systems, including capitalist and communist, will converge in their political and economic structures. This happens due to the determinant effects of technological development. More specifically, family modernization theory holds that the nuclear family pattern is an adaptation to industrialized society. In the world revolution moving towards industrialization and urbanization, all societies will witness the transformation from extended family patterns to conjugal family patterns (Goode, 1982). An important feature of the nuclear family is isolation. When summarizing modern societal evaluation standards, it is argued that universalism, family miniaturization, and family functions decline as the main criteria (Blake, 1996). Classical family modernization theory has been criticized and amended to become a more developed family modernization theory (Ben-Amos, 2000; Hareven, 1976). However, the assumption that industrialization leads to a more nuclear type of family structure has been generally accepted. China is now undergoing industrialization and urbanization; therefore, the family structure is moving towards this core tendency of becoming smaller (Peng & Mao, 1994; Hu, 2004; Wang, 2007). It has been pointed out that modern convergence theory often appears very weak, or even fails to explain Chinese family structure changes (Logan & Bian, 1999; Whyte, 2005). What are the different characteristics of family structure changes between China and the Western world? Through the systematic study of family and household size, family type, and family structure, this chapter will demonstrate for the reader the typical Chinese path and characteristics of family structure changes.