One of the hottest issues in worldwide social policy literature in the last several years is far from being analyzed and understood to its full extent. Conditional cash transfer systems (usually referred to as “CCT” programs), as they are called, have swept the globe; high visibility, high political and public acceptance, and the very limited size of existing programs have promoted a global run at a new social policy program. Brazil received worldwide acclaim in scaling up to national level this type of program that was tested and created at local government level. This chapter will analyze the overall development of conditional cash transfer programs with particular reference to Latin America and the Caribbean, comparing it to alternatives, particularly categorical cash transfer systems, such as (1) universal cash transfer systems, which “are usually target to certain sections of the population meeting particular criteria, typically those described as poor” (IDEAS, 2011), and (2) non-economically targeted cash transfer systems (NETs).