The three sections of this final chapter discuss some key issues we think will contribute to knowledge of how to create effective learning in schools, individually and collectively, on the assumption that student learning is the core business of schools and that it is the role of principals to make that happen. First, Lakomski proposes that a new direction in leadership studies is called for that would recalibrate the explanatory balance, in that cognition as a dynamical system (see Chapter 1) locates leadership as part of the ‘cognitive ecology’ (see Hutchins, 2010) of organisational functioning. In the context of this broader conception of cognition, it is important to emphasise that cognition is fundamentally social and integral to human learning in general and to classroom learning in particular. How knowledge of social cognition might improve classroom learning is briefly discussed at the end of this part of the chapter.