If democracy promotion is a ‘fashionable international art’ (Burnell 2000, 339),

then there are many artists involved in it. It is impressive to observe, for instance,

how the voices that offered assistance in the course of the Arab Spring appeared to

sing from the same hymn sheet:

However, rather than singing from the same hymn sheet, international democracy

promoters are soloists. While apparently singing the same melody, they sing it

with different lyrics and intonation. The international stage is home to a wide

group of actors engaged in democracy promotion, each pursuing their own

democratization agenda (Burnell 2008, 416; Merkel 2010, 154-159).