This chapter discusses developed methods that directly target cognitive-motivational processes to enhance self-control in addiction. It explores theoretical models underlying this approach and summarizes findings of different training-methods in the field of addiction. Lack of self-control is a central concept in definitions of addiction, including substance use disorders as well as psychological addictions, such as gambling or compulsive internet use. Self-control processes in addiction are about not giving in to the lure of immediate gratification, which would go at the expense of long-term goals. Problems with self-control are at the heart of addiction: while one knows the long-term perils of giving in, the lure of the temptation can be hard to resist. However, not all addictive behaviors qualify as self-control problems: binge-drinking can be intentional, serving social goals or can be largely habitual, and in both cases minimal conflict is experienced.