This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book looks at various institutions of politics and governance. It demonstrates that since 1991, a de facto two-party system has emerged and explores the workings of the national parliament. The book discusses the extant laws and constitutional provisions that guarantee citizens’ fundamental rights and focuses on the state of religious minorities in the country. It shows that legacies of overt and covert military interventions have a lasting impact on the relationship. The book examines the role of the civil society and non-governmental organizations in the social and political arenas. It demonstrates that despite inter-year fluctuations, production of food grains and edibles has increased over the years. The book suggests that the sectoral change, particularly the growth in the industrial sector, can be ascribed to the increase in labor-intensive light manufactured products, primarily ready-made garments.