This chapter presents an overview of continuity and change in the agricultural strategies and policy mechanisms that have been adopted by the Tanzanian state to develop the agricultural sector. It has been a major aspiration of all Tanzanian governments since independence to develop a modern agricultural sector characterised by high productivity and reasonably high incomes for the rural population. Tobacco was introduced in Tanzania in 1951, and it is an important crop for the national economy. Despite international efforts to control tobacco production, the crop has become Tanzania’s most successful agricultural product grown specifically for export. Agriculture was at the core of the ‘Economic Recovery Programme’ that was implemented from 1986. Agricultural reforms were expected to have a positive impact on the whole economy as the agricultural sector accounted for the majority of total export earnings and provided a livelihood for the majority of the workforce in the country.