General language schemes gathered momentum once more in the second half of the nineteenth century, when the old problem of a universal language was again pursued, but under drastically different conditions and independent from the closed circles of academies and learned societies. The preoccupation with a general language in the second half of the nineteenth century did not fall within the discourse of 'universal language', but rather adopted the programmatic title ofworld auxiliary language. Thus the world auxiliary language scheme not only aimed at becoming known world-wide, but also to establish itself as the only universal second language. Indeed, according to Couturat, the international auxiliary language should be 'the second language for every man'. Ostwald now sought to promote a new planned language under the nameWede, one which had nothing in common with the harmonizing and pacifist air of previous concepts.