This chapter describes the emergence of postmodern anthropology and the ascendance of neoclassical approaches in economics, each based on criticism of the intellectual orientation that they sought to displace. It also describes the debates and criticisms that led to the rise of postmodern anthropology. The chapter illustrates how a similar rejection occurred in anthropology with the rise of a culturalist postmodern orientation. It investigates the fate of Ortner's criticism and the more widespread sentiments that she expressed. The chapter describes how the rise of neoclassical economics and neoliberalism led to changing approaches to governments and their relationship with the people and economies of the countries that they govern. David Harvey himself, a central analyst of the ideas of neoliberalism and postmodernism, said that postmodernism ought to be looked at as mimetic of the social, economic, and political practices in society', a society increasingly dominated by neoliberalism.