This chapter presents findings of all India coordinated trials conducted in all the major ecologies in the country, providing the potential yield in those ecological regions. It examines the yield gaps in 20 principal crops, namely, paddy, wheat, maize, sorghum, pearl millet, lentil, pigeon pea, bengal gram, green gram, black gram, groundnut, rapeseed and mustard, soybean, sunflower, sugarcane, jute, cotton, coconut, onion and potato. The chapter identifies the crop- and region-specific factors accounting for yield gap, including farm inputs and infrastructural factors, through a factor analysis. The national, state and district-level data on crop yield was collected from the Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Department of Agriculture and Cooperation, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India. Information on the potential yield of principal crops was obtained from the All India Coordinated Research Projects (AICRPs) conducted by the Indian Council for Agricultural Research (ICAR) that are available in the public domain as well as published reports of Frontline Demonstration projects.