This chapter focuses on people with non-progressive causes of brain injury for whom error self-regulation can be a key barrier to returning to work or living independently. It provides an overview of the theoretical underpinnings of error self-regulation, assessment approaches and the evidence base supporting the efficacy of error-based learning in brain injury rehabilitation. In contrast to the theory guiding error-based learning, a prominent view in the neuropsychological rehabilitation literature is that errors should be avoided when teaching people with severe memory impairment new skills. Components of metacognition are proposed to have a dynamic relationship: pre-existing knowledge of one's abilities supported by long-term memory, and task-activated awareness and self-monitoring or "online" awareness. Errorless (EL) learning has been found to be most beneficial for teaching specific knowledge or procedures to people with severe explicit memory impairmen. EL learning involves teaching people only correct information or steps of a task, with the aim of preventing implicit consolidation of error responses.