This introduction presents an overview of key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book provides insight into the happiness and well-being of contemporary Japanese, male and female, young and old, married and unmarried, employed, retired, and still at school. On a most fundamental level, anthropological research has demonstrated that the experience of joy and happiness is indeed a human capacity of universal reach, albeit one which differs in origins and causes, as much as in the significance it is attributed by individuals and their societies. The book is based on extensive fieldwork and original research, considers how specific groups of Japanese people view and strive for the pursuit of happiness. It examines the importance of relationships, family, identity, community and self-fulfillment, amongst other factors. The book demonstrates how the act of balancing social norms and agency is at the root of the growing diversity of experiencing happiness in Japan today.