Recognition of prior learning (RPL) has emerged in recent decades as an important policy area and policy concept within the European Union, across countries in Europe and beyond. RPL is a phenomenon with a certain variation in practices as well as contexts, concepts and conceptions. However, there is a basic idea about giving recognition to prior learning wherever and whenever learning has taken place. Such ideas can be ‘materialised’ in formal assessment systems providing the basis for recognition, as well as in more non-formal and informal processes where prior learning is made visible and gets recognition.