Emfuleni's past, present and future are closely related to the iron and steel manufacturing industry; in fact, this industry is almost single-handedly responsible for Emfuleni's existence. The dependence on steel manufacturing and the lack of a major downstream steel industry represent a long-term threat to both Emfuleni's economy and the city's viability. The negative effects of the steel industry's boom-bust cycles have been largely mitigated by increasing linkage with Johannesburg and Pretoria, the expansion of the city's two universities and the increase in weekend tourism on the banks of the Vaal River. The chapter highlights several aspects of Emfuleni that have a bearing on the topic of secondary cities: its capabilities in relation to the steel industry, its links with South Africa's minerals-energy complex, its small but significant global linkages, its reliance on a single-sector global industry, its national and international vulnerability, its lack of institutional capacity and its serious environmental concerns.