ABSTRACT

This chapter extrapolates from Turkey’s engagement in intervention issues to generate an enhanced understanding of rising powers’—and Brazil’s-actions in this area. The new political elite in Turkey has fundamentally altered Turkish foreign policy since the Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi (Justice and Development Party-AKP) came to power in 2002. While the traditional foreign policy ensured the continuation of the status quo defined by alliance with the “West” under the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)’s collective security umbrella, the new foreign policy is proactive and fluid. As Prime Minister Ahmet Davutog˘lu has often publicly declared, Turkey is playing a new game where it seeks to shift its status in the current international system by increasing its “soft power”1 to move from the periphery to the center. The AKP administration ultimately views power as a tool for carrying out policy objectives in a very dangerous geopolitical environment: the Middle East. Whereas previous governments depended on the United States and other Western allies, the AKP policy focuses on climbing up the ladder of the international hierarchy and rising from peripheral status to that of a rising middle or even great power in the system. In other words, Turkey is attempting to reimagine and reassert its

role and power in the current international system. This chapter outlines how international peacekeeping has played an instrumental role

in Turkey’s use of power politics to enhance its position vis-à-vis other states. To do so, I examine the nature of Turkey’s role in international interventions and peacekeeping, as well as its normative stance in global governance and how it responds to changing norms of international interventions such as the Responsibility to Protect (R2P). An examination of Turkey’s path from periphery to center reveals

that it is by no means unique and indeed serves as a fruitful theorybuilding case for the elaboration of conclusions regarding other rising powers, including but clearly not limited to Brazil. This chapter argues that middle powers that have the capability and willingness to transform into rising powers use peace operations and intervention as instruments of bringing their “soft” and “hard” power to bear. The Turkish case is used to build a theoretical understanding of how and why rising powers act in the international system to enhance their status. Moreover, the insights gathered from the case are used to infer how Brazil might utilize its soft and hard power instrumentally. The implications of the chapter are important for Brazil, as well as other rising middle powers, to show that seemingly altruistic missions such as blue helmet operations can be instruments of power used to challenge the existing global distribution of power.