A civilization that proves incapable of solving the problems it creates is a decadent civilization. Decolonization of the state and its institutions was a key cohesive element in the political alliance that Evo Morales’s political party formed with the country’s principal indigenous organizations. The history of the Plurinational State of Bolivia is closely linked with that of the indigenous movement. During this period, the relationship between the Presidency and the indigenous movement seemed to be in good shape. For indigenous peoples, the great hope raised by the concept of “indigenous autonomies” has rapidly been replaced by frustration. The implementation of a plurinational state that aims to rebuild the country on a lasting post-colonial foundation still appears to be an enormous challenge, and has yet to become a reality. The social and economic situation of indigenous peoples has been significantly improved, partly due to the public policies implemented by the Evo Morales government.