This conclusion presents some closing thoughts on the concepts covered in the preceding chapters of this book. The book argues that in addition to the alliance with the United States, an incrementally strengthening and shifting national security policy, and multilateral diplomacy at the regional level, strategic partnerships form a new pillar of Japan's security policy. It starts out by surveying the Asian security environment as perceived by Japan. The book explains furthermore surmises that Japan's case alludes to the growing importance of issue-based and functional partnerships with third states or regional organizations, to the detriment of regionalist approaches. It postulates that in the longer run a "multinodal network" of countries with interlinking strategic ties might prevail over the current hub-and-spokes system in East Asia. The book concludes by arguing for the need to take into account long-term trends such as Japan's new security policy, China's often-pragmatic foreign policy, and the underpinnings of the bilateral relations between both countries.