This chapter assesses the evolution of the facets of India-Japan relations and also examines the emergence of Japan as a pillar of India's "Act East" policy under current Prime Minister Narendra Modi. It begins with Shinzo Abe's first, and very brief, term as the prime minister of Japan, where in his address to the Indian Parliament on 22 August 2007. Abe spoke of the "Confluence of Two Seas" – a reference to their mutual security concerns in the Western Pacific and the Indian Ocean – calling for India and Japan to take the lead in forming a coalition with other like-minded nations to ensure the security of the Indo-Pacific. India and Japan established diplomatic relations in April 1952, and over the following six decades developed a durable and stable partnership based on mutual cultural understanding, strengthened by their common appreciation of Buddhist values.