This chapter explores the child welfare context in New Zealand and begins with a discussion of current international debates and perspectives on child welfare policy and services, before turning its attention to a discussion on the specific New Zealand context. It focuses on findings from a study of vulnerable youth and their experiences of service use, having first introduced the study and present participants' perspectives and experiences of child welfare services. The chapter draws on these accounts and explores the factors that are likely to contribute to best practice in child welfare services. In New Zealand, child welfare services are provided by a statutory organization, Child, Youth and Family, which has legislative responsibility for the care and protection of children and youth. The child welfare system continues to struggle to both effectively respond to the needs of children and families and to improve well-being and outcomes of children in the care system.