This chapter introduces a variety of contextual and economic factors that challenge traditional approaches to Human Resources (HR) and training in particular. It reviews what is known about autonomous learning, and how autonomous learning contributes to the formation of human capital resources. The chapter considers the nature and relationships between autonomous learning, value creation, and value capture. The business context within which training and development are conducted has changed radically since the mid 2000s. Autonomous learning seems like a simple concept to define, but a complete understanding requires some elaboration. Induced learning occurs when content is created for the learner and the learner typically only controls the pace of learning and where the learning occurs. The HR function has been moving in this direction for some time, and research will be needed to articulate how this should be done for the training function in general and autonomous learning specifically.